Tag Archives: Theory

The Major Scale – Foundation Knowledge

The Major Scale – What It Is And Why It’s Important

The major scale is one of the primary tonalities in western music……as such, it’s a really important musical tool which everyone should understand, and it’s components should be part of every musicians vocabulary.

In essence the major scale is a very simple thing: it is a sequence of tones and semitones in the ascending order from the root:

Root – Tone – Tone – Semitone – Tone – Tone – Tone – Semitone

or

C – D – E – F – G – A – B – C

and these notes continue to repeat above and below the one octave contained above. For example, when you hit the C at the top, you begin the pattern again as if it was the C at the bottom, and like before D comes next but one octave higher. Conversely, if descending, when you hit the C at the bottom you go back to the top, and the pattern extends so your next note below C is B.

This scale can then be analysed and approached in a variety of ways, using concepts I have previously discussed in my blog lesson about intervals.

The PDF for this lesson on the major scale can be downloaded here.

Learning The Basic Sound Of The Major Scale

First, get your instrument (be it bass, guitar, piano, any instrument with pitches will do) and play one octave of the major scale. If you’re stuck on recognising the notes as written, and relating that to where they are on the fingerboard, I’ve previously written a relatively handy reference sheet on reading notation which you can download here.

Just match up the notes you need from the major scale reference sheet and slowly, with the notation reference sheet, find them on the fingerboard and play them up and down. If you’re struggling with recognising the notes, say them out loud as you play each one, as this will help reinforce what they are called and where they are.

You should find that it’s a very familiar sound; one which we all become accustomed to hearing from a very young age. Most nursery rhymes from your childhood, many Christmas carols and all sorts of adverts from TV and radio are all constructed using this scale. Try noodling round and playing a few, you’ll see what I mean.

Breaking Down The Major Scale

So, if a major scale consists of 7 different notes (C, D, E, F, G, A, B), how can we break this down into smaller chunks of information which are easier to deal with? The two most common ways, as shown on the PDF, are to break it down into 3 and 4 note groups. 3 notes are called a triad, 4 notes are called arpeggios or chords, depending on whether you break them up and play one note at a time (arpeggio) or all 4 notes at once (chord).

Regardless of whether they are triads or arpeggios, there are still only 7 notes of the major scale to build them from, and as triads contain less notes we will start there.

As you can see in the PDF, the triad is constructed by missing out the 2nd and 4th notes of the scale so we only play 1, 3 and 5. This can then be extended by using the same principle of playing every other note, starting on any of the possible notes of the scale, so you have 7 triads going up (see lines 4 and 5 on the PDF sheet), and these can also obviously be played coming back down as well. Another thing to remember is that as bass players we will mostly be playing these broken up, 1 note at a time, triads can and should be practiced by playing all 3 notes at the same time, too. This can be quite challenging on bass because of the size of the instrument, but it is very achievable with the right guidance. If you have trouble with it on bass, try it on a piano or guitar.

However, if we look and analyse the types of triad in the major scale, we can see that there are actually only 3 types of triad: Major, Minor, and Diminished. Simple. So it stands to reason in my mind that firstly, especially for guitarists and bassists, we should work out every possible way of playing these 3 triads. I would suggest working out shapes on the fingerboard starting them on each finger of your left hand, using 1 finger per fret, and seeing how each one feels. These three types of triad can then be played based on the order of tones and semitones from the top of the page. So I would think of this exercise something like this in C Major:

C Major Triad – Move Up a Tone
D Minor Triad – Move Up a Tone
E Minor Triad – Move Up a Semitone
F Major Triad – Move Up a Tone
G Major Triad – Move Up a Tone
A Minor Triad – Move Up a Tone
B Diminished Triad – Move Up a Semitone

You can then also play this backwards for the descending version back to the root. This is a great technical exercise, but also a great musical exercise if you transpose this through all 12 keys. I’ll be writing a lesson on that in the next few weeks, but in the meantime, there is a good article on the construction of the major scale which is helpful with transposition here.

Extending Triads Into Arpeggios

Now we have become more familiar with triads, they can be extended by adding the 7th (continue missing out every other note of the scale, in this case the 6th). If you look at the last 2 lines of the PDF sheet, you can see that there are only 4 different arpeggio shapes contained in a major scale, so it is still a relatively small amount of information. These arpeggios should again be worked out in a variety of different fingerboard shapes, starting on different fingers of the left hand. The 4 different arpeggios you need to know are:

Major 7th
Dominant 7th
Minor 7th
Minor 7th Flat 5 (or Half Diminished)

This then gives us a similar order to the triads:

C Major 7 Arpeggio – Move Up a Tone
D Minor 7 Arpeggio – Move Up a Tone
E Minor 7 Arpeggio – Move Up a Semitone
F Major 7 Arpeggio – Move Up a Tone
G Dominant 7 Arpeggio – Move Up a Tone
A Minor 7 Arpeggio – Move Up a Tone
B Minor 7 Flat 5 Arpeggio – Move Up a Semitone

Again, all the learning principles from the triad work stands for this. The approach to learning it is exactly the same, but you have one extra note added on to each triad. I don’t think I need to say it all again, so I’ll leave it for you to work out by yourself. However, as always, if anyone does have any questions, feel free to get in touch via the contact page of this site.

Why Do I Need To Know This?

Whatever type of music you listen to, from classical to metal and everything in between, you will hear this stuff all the time. You may not recognise it, but it’s there. If you do a little work on familiarising yourself with the major scale, you can then expand this knowledge to enable you to understand what is happening musically in an piece of music you like, and then use and manipulate that same information to copy that music or create your own. It’s all about understanding what you are hearing. This is just the start, and the principles we’ve used here can be applied to many other scales and chords which are commonly used in particular genres. That comes later, but you have to lay the foundations first.

Notation on Bass Guitar – Reading Music

Reading Notes/Notation – A Dying Art?

Many, many musicians who play modern music, especially on fretted instruments such as guitar and bass, have a real weak spot when it comes to reading notation or “dots”. The thing that really confuses me is the unwillingness of many musicians to even consider trying to learn it. I understand that many people only like their own particular “thing”, whatever that may be, but I strongly believe that the more you know about music and your instrument, the better.

The fact of life is, if you want to be a professional musician then reading music is a skill you can’t really live without, and I have witnessed this first hand many times, getting gigs because I can read and seeing others lose them because they can’t.

The most amazing thing is that learning to read music doesn’t take that long to understand, and once you have the skill it will keep developing and never be lost, enabling you to draw ideas/concepts and influences from any piece of written music you can ever find (and there’s a lot out there!).

Why not just use guitar tabs etc, I hear you ask? Well, they tell you where to put your fingers, agreed……and can be a really handy thing at times……but tab doesn’t give you enough information. There is no mention of rhythm at all, so if you don’t know the piece and have no reference recording of it, you’re a bit stuck. Notation on the other hand conveys many components enabling you to play music, without needing other references. You have pitch, rhythm, dynamics, sometimes harmony and other necessary information all combined into one system. If you can read that, you don’t need anything else.

How to Start

To me, the logical place to start with notation is note recognition, or learning where all the notes are on your bass and how they look written down. We will focus on this first, before rhythm or other aspects of notation are introduced. I have provided a PDF for download below, and this will be followed by a video lesson in the near future.

View/Download Bass Notation Reference Sheet

Also, reading around this subject is definitely advised. The first half of the following link explains how notation works, and the second half deals with further aspects should you want to read on.

Method Behind The Music – Notation

The Aim of this Exercise

The objective here is to increase familiarity with note names, how they relate to the fingerboard, and how they look in notation form. This will be coupled with technical practice relating to the use of 1 finger per fret concepts (Left Hand) and alternating index and middle fingers (Right Hand), so you’re actually working on about 4 or 5 musical topics/elements at the same time. This is how to practice efficiently. Also be aware of the fact that string players have the issue of being able to play the same note in a variety of places on the fingerboard, and you should be consciously trying to see patterns of where the same notes repeat themselves.

How to do The Exercise

Play each bar through slowly, out of time, while concentrating on what the note looks like written down on the page. While doing this, say the note name out loud (sharps on the way up, flats on the way down). Also be aware of what your left and right hands are doing, so change your focus every so often from the note names and how they look written down, to what your hands are doing.

Right hand should be strictly alternating index and middle fingers (this can be flipped so you begin on the middle finger then alternate middle, index). Left hand should be using one finger per fret, thumb roughly in line with the middle finger and dropped down towards the bottom of the back of the neck. Fingers should be arched and pressing into the string and fingerboard, not pulling or pushing it, and once a note is fretted it should be held down (on the way up) and all fingers should be fretting on the way down. The previously used finger should then be simply removed a small distance to play the next note when descending.
Play one line at a time, until you are comfortable, then move on to the next line. Once that is also comfortable, play all the way up and down one string, whilst still saying the note names out loud. Repeat this process for all strings, then put it all together. Also try breaking it up by skipping strings and starting at the 12 fret so you play descending then ascending.

Developing Your Notation Reading Skills

Now you have a reference, you can pick any bass music out there and slowly work through it to identify how to play the notes, and what they are called. I will develop these concepts on in a further lesson in future, but should you have any questions, feel free to get in touch via my Contact Page.

Intervals – Building Blocks of Music

Intervals – The Distance Between Notes

Intervals are one of the most important constituent parts of music, in my opinion, and yet many students do not understand what I am talking about when I mention intervals during lessons. This is why I have written this post, to provide an online permanent reference for my private students and anyone else who might be interested. To begin, download the Lesson Sheet below. This sheet is in Bass Clef, but if anyone would like a Treble Clef version, feel free to message me via my Contact Page.

View/Download Intervals Lesson Sheet

What is an interval?

This is really simple, an interval is just another word for “the distance between two pitches”. Obviously two pitches can be played one after the other (Melodic or Horizontal), or can be played together, at the same time (Harmonic or Vertical). In western music, the smallest interval we have is called a semitone and equals 1 fret up or down from the note you start on, on a bass or guitar. Any other interval is constructed from “jumps” of more than one semitone, for example a Major 3rd is 4 semitones above or below the note you started on, a Tone (or Major 2nd) is 2 semitones.

Using Semitones

We can work out how big intervals are by using semitones. As bassists or guitarists, we gauge intervals using fret numbers. If we count the note you begin on as 0, then move up or down by a given number of semitones/frets, we can also say we have moved by a particular interval, given below:

  • 0 Semitones = Unison
  • 1 Semitone = Minor 2nd
  • 2 Semitones = Major 2nd
  • 3 Semitones = Minor 3rd
  • 4 Semitones = Major 3rd
  • 5 Semitones = Perfect 4th
  • 6 Semitones = Augmented 4th / Diminished 5th
  • 7 Semitones = Perfect 5th
  • 8 Semitones = Augmented 5th / Minor 6th
  • 9 Semitones = Major 6th / Diminished 7th
  • 10 Semitones = Minor 7th
  • 11 Semitones = Major 7th
  • 12 Semitones = Perfect Octave

There are more names for some of these intervals, and it is also worth doing some reading on Enharmonic Equivalents for further clarification on notes that sound the same but are named or notated differently. Also, for fretted instruments, be aware there is more than one way to play a lot of intervals e.g. a minor third can be 3 frets above the first note on the same string, but also 2 frets behind on the string above. So a C to Eb Minor 3rd interval can be either: 3rd fret to 6th fret on your A string, or 3rd fret A string to 1st fret D string. This is another reason you need to know what all the notes are all the way across the fingerboard.

Intervals in Scales

Everyone has heard of a scale of some description when talking about music, even if it’s people saying “I learned music when I was young and hated playing scales”. This is actually a very common reaction when the dreaded scale is mentioned. In reality, there is nothing to be afraid of. It’s sort of like when you were a kid and you thought there were monsters under your bed at night, it was all really scary until your mum or dad turned on the lights and you realised there was nothing there.

A scale is just a series of intervals played one after the other. The gap between each note in a scale is generally no more than a Tone, although bigger intervals do occur every so often. So, for example, a C Major scale consists of these notes:

C  D  E  F  G  A  B  C

And then repeats as it goes up or down. If you look at this in terms of tones and semitones, it goes like this:

C Major Scale Intervals

The construction of scales and arpeggios etc. will be dealt with in a further lesson which I am currently writing, but in the meantime all you need is to understand that scales and things can be broken down into individual intervals between each note. There are also a finite amount of intervals in the world, some of which are much more commonly used than others.

Describing Intervals by Name

An interval name is broken into two parts: the Quality (Major, Minor, Perfect, Augmented or Diminished) and the Number (2nd, 3rd, 4th etc), giving you all the information you need to work out what the interval is.

The Number

The Number is based on something called the diatonic staff position. In other words, the lines and spaces of a musical staff. If we refer to the example staff above containing C Major, we can count the lines and spaces to work out the interval, for example, C to G is a 5th: we can see that C is a 1st, D is a 2nd etc. until G is a 5th. E to G is a 3rd, because E is a 1st, F is a 2nd and G is a 3rd. That’s all there is to working out the number of an interval. Easy!

The Quality

To my mind, the Quality is the description of the “sound” of the interval. There are only 5 possible options with this: Perfect, Major, Minor, Augmented and Diminished. Once you learn the details of how these work as well, and see a few examples, everything will become a whole lot easier.

Perfect intervals were traditionally considered “perfectly consonant”, so Unison and Octaves are Perfect, as are 4ths and 5ths.

Major and Minor intervals are not considered perfect, and apply to the other, non-perfect numbers. These are the 2nd, 3rd, 6th and 7th. As a rule, the larger interval is always called Major, and the smaller is called Minor.

Augmented and Diminished intervals are either greater or smaller than Perfect, Major or Minor intervals by a semitone, but still have the same interval number because they are on a particular line of the staff. For example, C to E# is an Augmented 3rd, because it has exceeded the major 3rd interval by a semitone. Similarly, C to Gb is a Diminished 5th because it has exceeded a perfect interval by a semitone.

As a rule of thumb:

Major and Perfect Intervals up by one semitone become Augmented.

Major Intervals down by one semitone become Minor.

Minor and Perfect Intervals down by one semitone become Diminished.

Inversions

Inversions occur when intervals are switched around: either the lower pitch of an interval is raised by an octave, or the higher pitch is lowered by an octave. In my mind, when inverted, intervals become opposite. So:

  • 2nds = 7ths
  • 3rds = 6ths
  • 4ths = 5ths
  • Major = Minor
  • Augmented = Diminished
  • Perfect = Perfect

And, as in mathematics, the equals sign works either way around e.g. C to A: a Major 6th inverts to a Minor 3rd.

Compound Intervals

Compound intervals are simple in concept as well, and will aid in your understanding of chords and harmony. Once you go past the octave (8th), the numbering of intervals continues. So a Compound 2nd becomes a 9th, a Compound 3rd becomes a 10th, and so on. These are sometimes known as the upper extensions of a chord, and certain extensions/compound intervals are more common than others. I have included these in the Lesson Sheet at the top of the page.

How They Sound

This is the most important thing to me, as knowledge is great but needs to be used in practical situations. If you can learn how intervals sound and how to play them on your instrument, you have the makings of strong relative pitch. When I was younger and I learned all this, I began by working out the shapes of the intervals on the fingerboard and wrote them all out, so I knew how to play them all. I then began memorising how they sound by playing them over and over.

I have since been shown a much better way. Still begin by working out the shapes and writing them down so you know what they are on the fingerboard, but for learning to recognise the sound of each one, I recommend Functional Ear Trainer Basic. This exercise was given to me by my teacher, Joe Hubbard, and his article on using this exercise with the software to develop relative pitch/interval recognition should be read and followed by everyone. Check it out here.

Help

This may seem like a lot of complex stuff to learn, but trust me, once you know it you will be amazed at how much easier it is to play music, by ear or written out. It’s absolutely worth it.

To begin, read this article over and over, and make notes, sit down and work out what all the intervals are, and try the ear training. Also, Google can be a great asset, so if there are things you are unsure of, have a search and read other peoples writings on this subject. Just bear in mind that articles may or may not be wide of the mark, so take all the information on board and try to draw your own conclusions on the subject. The information will also stick in your mind better this way. Finally, if you really want some help or clarification on any of this, a 1 hour lesson with me in person or on Skype will be enough to completely deal with this topic. Feel free to contact me if you would like to do this.

As I keep saying, Knowledge is Power and learning is fun………..so just enjoy the ride, you will definitely get better!